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Date of issue: January 2023, Version: 2.0

Fluoroacetic acid derivatives (organofluorines) such as sodium fluoroacetic acid, methyl fluoroacetic acid and fluoroacetamide have been used as rodenticides.  Occupational exposure can occur in formulators and pest control workers.  Due to their extreme toxicity the use of these compounds is not widespread.  Fluoroacetic acid derivatives dissociate to yield the fluoroacetate anion which is converted to fluorocitrate, inhibiting the Krebs cycle.

Animal studies have shown adverse effects following exposure to sodium fluoroacetic acid during gestation, with reports of congenital malformations in exposed fetuses.

There are no human data following acute exposure to fluoroacetate compounds during pregnancy, and therefore an accurate evidence-based risk assessment is not possible. Maternal toxicity is likely to be a major determinant of risk to the fetus and if exposure occurs, treatment should be as for a non-pregnant person.  The need for additional fetal monitoring should be considered on a case-by-case basis, even in the absence of maternal toxicity.  Discussion with UKTIS is recommended in all cases.  Other risk factors may also be present in individual cases which may independently increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Clinicians are reminded of the importance of consideration of such factors when performing case specific risk assessments.

This is a summary of the full UKTIS monograph for health care professionals and should not be used in isolation. The full UKTIS monograph and access to any hyperlinked related documents is available to NHS health care professionals who are logged in.

If you have a patient with exposure to a drug or chemical and require assistance in making a patient-specific risk assessment, please telephone UKTIS on 0344 892 0909 to discuss the case with a teratology specialist.

If you would like to report a pregnancy to UKTIS please click here to download our pregnancy reporting form. Please encourage all women to complete an online reporting form.

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that this monograph was accurate and up-to-date at the time of writing, however it cannot cover every eventuality and the information providers cannot be held responsible for any adverse outcomes of the measures recommended. The final decision regarding which treatment is used for an individual patient remains the clinical responsibility of the prescriber. This material may be freely reproduced for education and not for profit purposes within the UK National Health Service, however no linking to this website or reproduction by or for commercial organisations is permitted without the express written permission of this service. This document is regularly reviewed and updated. Only use UKTIS monographs downloaded directly from to ensure you are using the most up-to-date version.